Wolzak K, Vermunt L, Campo MD, Jorge-Oliva M, van Ziel AM, Li KW, Smit AB, Chen-Ploktkin A, Irwin DJ, Lemstra AW, Pijnenburg Y, van der Flier W, Zetterberg H, Gobom J, Blennow K, Visser PJ, Teunissen CE, Tijms BM, Scheper W
Introduction: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for specific cellular disease processes are lacking for tauopathies. In this translational study we aimed to identify CSF biomarkers reflecting early tau pathology-associated unfolded protein response (UPR) activation.
Methods: We employed mass spectrometry proteomics and targeted immunoanalysis in a combination of biomarker discovery in primary mouse neurons in vitro and validation in patient CSF from two independent large multicentre cohorts (EMIF-AD MBD, n = 310; PRIDE, n = 771).
Results: First, we identify members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family in the neuronal UPR-activated secretome and validate secretion upon tau aggregation in vitro. Next, we demonstrate that PDIA1 and PDIA3 levels correlate with total- and phosphorylated-tau levels in CSF. PDIA1 levels are increased in CSF from AD patients compared to controls and patients with tau-unrelated frontotemporal and Lewy body dementia (LBD).
Highlights: Neuronal unfolded protein response (UPR) activation induces the secretion of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) in vitro. PDIA1 is secreted upon tau aggregation in neurons in vitro. PDIA1 and PDIA3 levels correlate with total and phosphorylated tau levels in CSF. PDIA1 levels are increased in CSF from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared to controls. PDIA1 levels are not increased in CSF from tau-unrelated frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD) patients.
Wolzak K, Vermunt L, Campo MD, Jorge-Oliva M, van Ziel AM, Li KW, Smit AB, Chen-Ploktkin A, Irwin DJ, Lemstra AW, Pijnenburg Y, van der Flier W, Zetterberg H, Gobom J, Blennow K, Visser PJ, Teunissen CE, Tijms BM, Scheper W. Protein disulfide isomerases as CSF biomarkers for the neuronal response to tau pathology. Alzheimers Dement. 2023 Feb 24. doi: 10.1002/alz.12978. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36825551.