Norms for Testing Visual Binding Using the Memory Associative Test (TMA-93) in Older Educationally-Diverse Adults
Rodrigo-Herrero S, Sánchez-Benavides G , Ainz-Gómez L, Luque-Tirado A, Graciani-Cantisán E, Sánchez-Arjona MB, Maillet D, Jiménez-Hernández MD, Franco-Macías E.
Background: TMA-93 examines binding by images, a potential advantage for less-educated individuals.
Objective: To obtain norms from older Spanish adults for TMA-93.
Methods: A cross-sectional normative study was undertaken in a general neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the Southern Spanish region of Andalusia. Partners of patients who attended the clinic were systematically recruited when eligible: aged 50 and over, no memory complaints, and a total score equal or above percentile 10 on Phototest. Age, gender, and educational attainment were considered as sociodemographic variables. TMA-93 was administered and the total score was registered.
Results: The final sample contained 1,131 participants (mean age = 65.7, SD = 9.2), including 305 individuals (27%) who did not completed primary studies. The total score on TMA-93 showed a non-normal, left asymmetric, and leptokurtic distribution (median = 29, interquartile range = 27-30, range = 16-30) mitigated by lower education and older age. Stratified analysis by age and education showed wide variations of the scores for the 5-percentile.
Conclusion: TMA-93 runs with a ceiling effect in non-cognitively impaired older Spanish adults. The score for the 5-percentile depends on age and education. The test is feasible for low-educated individuals.
Keywords: Associative memory; cognitive assessment; cross-cultural neuropsychology; memory test.
Rodrigo-Herrero S, Sánchez-Benavides G, Ainz-Gómez L, Luque-Tirado A, Graciani-Cantisán E, Sánchez-Arjona MB, Maillet D, Jiménez-Hernández MD, Franco-Macías E. Norms for Testing Visual Binding Using the Memory Associative Test (TMA-93) in Older Educationally-Diverse Adults. J AlzheimersDis. 2020